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# Which of these actions will decrease the concentration of a solution

### Calculations in chemistry - AQA test questions - AQA

• 2.0 g of copper sulfate is dissolved in 0.5 dm 3 of solution. What is the concentration of the solution? 4.0 g/dm 3. Which of these actions will decrease the concentration of a solution? - Higher
• The concentration can be decreased by 2 ways, by increasing the solute, or decreasing the water. Increasing the solute will increase the solution's concentration. This can be done by simply adding more of your compound into the solution and dissolving it. It may not help if you are using an aqueous solution (already dissolved in water)
• Dilution refers to the process of adding additional solvent to a solution to decrease its concentration. This process keeps the amount of solute constant, but increases the total amount of solution, thereby decreasing its final concentration
• serial dilution: stepwise dilution of a substance in solution Dilution refers to the process of adding additional solvent to a solution to decrease its concentration. This process keeps the amount of solute constant, but increases the total amount of solution, thereby decreasing its final concentration
• The simplest way to change the concentration would be to change the amount of solute or solvent in the solution. Increasing the solute would increase the concentration. Increasing the solvent would decrease the concentration. For instance, if your lemonade was too tart, you would add more water to decrease the concentration

Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning these factors? A reaction occurs each time particles of the reactants collide. The action of a catalyst can be explained in the following manner: A 7.83 g sample of NaCl is dissolved in 90.00 mL of ethyl alcohol solution. Calculate the molar concentration of the solution When the solute in a solution is a solid, a convenient way to express the concentration is a mass percent (mass/mass), which is the grams of solute per 100 g of solution. (8.1.1) Percent by mass = mass of solute mass of solution × 100 %. Suppose that a solution was prepared by dissolving 25.0 g of sugar into 100 g of water The last component of Beer's Law, is concentration. Concentration effects the absorbance very similarly to path length. If the concentration of solution is increased, then there are more molecules for the light to hit when it passes through. As the concentration increases, there are more molecules in the solution, and more light is blocked

### How can the concentration of water in solution be

• What happens to the solution if another 10 grams of Mg(OH)2 are now added to the mixture? - the hydroxide ion concentration will decrease - the hydroxide ion concentration will increase - the hydroxide ion concentration will be unchanged - the solution will become supersaturated - None of the above conclusions is justified without additional.
• A decrease in the reactants concentration will disturb the equilibrium position of the system. To attain the equilibrium again, the system will be shifted to the lift (reactants side) to increases the concentration of the reactants and attain the equilibrium again. So, the right choice is: Shift it toward the reactants
• a solution containing two moles of each reactant has a faster instantaneous rate of reaction than a solution of the same volume with only one mole of each reactant These solutions clearly have differing concentrations of reactants, and they will therefore exhibit differing initial rates
• Although these are different units, they describe the same volume. For example, 250 ml = 250 cm 3 . Volumes used in concentration calculations must be in dm 3 , not in cm 3 or ml
• imise the effect of that change. If the concentration of a reactant is increased the equilibrium will shift in the direction of the reaction that uses the reactants, so that the reactant concentration decreases. The forward reaction is favoured

(d) The Ag + ion concentration will increase and the $\text{SO}_4^{\;\;2-}$ ion concentration will decrease. The amino acid alanine has two isomers, α-alanine and β-alanine. When equal masses of these two compounds are dissolved in equal amounts of a solvent, the solution of α-alanine freezes at the lowest temperature Factors that affect focus and concentration by Dr. Julie Schwartzbard, MD. Our ability to focus and concentrate lets us accomplish amazing things — when it's working well. Distractions are the main reason we lose focus, but often these aren't as obvious as you might imagine Dilution is the process of making a concentrated solution less concentrated. There are a variety of reasons why one might want to perform a dilution. For example, biochemists dilute solutions from their concentrated form to create new solutions for use in their experiments

Inline water filters are designed to reduce the concentration of fluoride and several other trace-level contaminants in tap water (Figure 3). Figure 3. (a) In some areas, trace-level concentrations of contaminants can render unfiltered tap water unsafe for drinking and cooking A 3% concentration for 150 minutes killed 10 6 spores in six of seven exposure trials 658. A 10% hydrogen peroxide solution resulted in a 10 3 decrease in B. atrophaeus spores, and a ≥10 5 decrease when tested against 13 other pathogens in 30 minutes at 20°C 659, 660

Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the body's water content; that is it keeps the body's fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis The pH scale. The pH scale is used to rank solutions in terms of acidity or basicity (alkalinity). Since the scale is based on pH values, it is logarithmic, meaning that a change of 1 pH unit corresponds to a ten-fold change in H ion concentration. The pH scale is often said to range from 0 to 14, and most solutions do fall within this range.

Design a procedure for creating a solution of a given concentration. Design and justify a procedure for changing a solution from one concentration to another. Identify when a solution is saturated and predict how concentration will change for any action or combination of actions where water or solute change. Version 1.3.21 affect the surface/saturation concentration, C. s. Depending on the characteris ­ tics of the solute and solvent, this change could either increase or decrease . C. s, either decreasing or increasing the concentration gradient, respectively, and increase or decrease dissolution rate, respectively. Solubility is a key point, representing capacity For example, quaternary ammonium compounds and phenol have a concentration exponent of 1 and 6, respectively; thus, halving the concentration of a quaternary ammonium compound requires doubling its disinfecting time, but halving the concentration of a phenol solution requires a 64-fold (i.e., 2 6) increase in its disinfecting time 365, 413, 420 Improved concentration is only one of these. A 2011 review of 23 studies found evidence to suggest mindfulness training that emphasizes attention focus could help increase attention and focus Introduction. The solubility products K sp 's are equilibrium constants in hetergeneous equilibria (i.e., between two different phases). If several salts are present in a system, they all ionize in the solution. If the salts contain a common cation or anion, these salts contribute to the concentration of the common ion

### Dilutions of Solutions Introduction to Chemistr

• Does the pH of the solution increase, decrease or stay the same when you? (a) add solid ammonium chloride to a dilute aqueous solution of NH3? (b) add solid sodium acetate to a dilute aqueous solution of acetic acid? (c) add solid NaCl to a dilute aqueous solution of NaOH? close
• Hypochlorite. Hypochlorite was the original form of chloride used for the disinfection of drinking water. Known as chloride of lime, calcium hypochlorite (Ca (OCl)2) is a solid which can be used as a powder, granules or in tablet form and is still widely used today at smaller WTPs
• Reducing the effective inhaled dose of air pollution. In addition to staying indoors, with or without further efforts to reduce indoor pollutant levels, reducing exertion can reduce the amount (dose) of air pollutants that are inhaled (), and can modify the fraction of pollutant deposited or absorbed in different regions of the respiratory tract.For example, an experimental study of healthy.
• g the solid solute are equal. When the concentration is below the saturation concentration, then any solid will spontaneously dissolve. Once sufficient solute has dissolved and the system is at equilibrium, the net dissolution will stop
• Actions You Can Take to Reduce Air Pollution. Follow these Tips Every Day to Reduce Pollution: Conserve energy - at home, at work, everywhere. Look for the ENERGY STAR label when buying home or office equipment. Carpool, use public transportation, bike, or walk whenever possible. Follow gasoline refueling instructions for efficient vapor.

### Solution Concentration Boundless Chemistr

In this solution, an excess of solid AgCl dissolves and dissociates to produce aqueous Ag + and Cl - ions at the same rate that these aqueous ions combine and precipitate to form solid AgCl (Figure 15.2). Because silver chloride is a sparingly soluble salt, the equilibrium concentration of its dissolved ions in the solution is relatively low A reaction can also be speeded by increasing the concentration of reactants, the chemicals that are necessary for the reaction to proceed; this is called the Law of Mass Action, or by decreasing the concentration of products, the chemicals that result from the reaction. Some reactions can even run in both directions depending on the. Increasing N2O3 concentration, decreasing NO and/or NO2 concentration, decreasing the pressure, lowering the T (cooling the system). Explanation: Question 1: Match the action to the effect on the equilibrium position for the reaction N2(g) + 3H2(g) ⇌ 2NH3(g). Match Term Definition Removing ammonia A) No effec concentration). A. Enteral Routes 1. Sublingual (buccal) Certain drugs are best given beneath the tongue or retained in the cheek pouch and are absorbed from these regions into the local circulation. These vascular areas are ideal for lipid-soluble drugs that would be metabolized in the gut or liver, since the blood vessels in the mouth bypas ‪Concentration‬ 1.3.2

### How can the concentration of a solution be increased

1. Tonic: concentration of a solution. The cell has a low amount of solute extracellularly and it wants to shift inside the cell to get everything back to normal via osmosis. This will cause CELL SWELLING which can cause the cell to burst or lyses. Hypotonic solutions. 0.45% Saline (1/2 NS) 0.225% Saline (1/4 NS) 0.33% saline (1/3 NS
2. The first step towards a plastic pollution solution is learning how to reduce plastic use. Follow these steps to do your part in keeping our earth a cleaner place
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Thus, 0.010 - x 0.010 M. Substituting these values into the formation-constant expression, Equation 17.25, we obtain Solving for x, we obtain x = 1.5 10 -8 M = [Ag +]. It is evident that formation of the Ag(NH 3) 2 + complex drastically reduces the concentration of free Ag + ion in solution. PRACTICE EXERCIS Dehydration has also been shown to decrease alertness and concentration. The solution: Get to bed early These individual differences in daily energy patterns are determined by brain. Reduce emissions from industry. Manufacturing, mining for raw materials, and dealing with the waste all take energy. Most of the products that we buy - everything from phones and TVs to clothing and shoes - are created in factories, which adds up to about 20% of the greenhouse gases produced worldwide

The half-lives of radioactive isotopes can be used to date objects. The half-life of a reaction is the time required for the reactant concentration to decrease to one-half its initial value. The half-life of a first-order reaction is a constant that is related to the rate constant for the reaction: t 1/2 = 0.693/ k b. In your own words, describe why an increase in concentration can result in a change in the rate of a reaction. Provide a real life example as to how we adjust concentration to adjust a reaction for our benefit. c. Complete the following table by indicating whether each of the following scenarios would either increase or decrease the rate of.

### quiz #2 Flashcards Quizle

1. e B) DNA-anticancer alkylating agent C) both D.
2. Solution. The definitions of the ppm and ppb units may be used to convert the given concentration from ppb to ppm. Comparing these two unit definitions shows that ppm is 1000 times greater than ppb (1 ppm = 10 3 ppb). Thus: 15 ppb× 1 ppm 103 ppb =0.015 ppm 15 ppb × 1 ppm 10 3 ppb = 0.015 ppm
3. These action potentials, coupled with normal slow-wave potentials, stimulate rhythmical contractions. Like skeletal muscle, smooth muscle concentration is both actin and ATP dependent. However, the cross-bridge cycle in smooth muscle is considerably slower than in skeletal muscle, which allows for a higher maximal force of contraction

What effect does an increase in concentration of H+(aq) ions in a solution have on pH of solution? Ans : [CBSE 2013,2009] Increase in H+ concentration will lead to decrease in pH, 10. Name a gas evolved when dilute HCl reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate. How is it recognised? Ans : [CBSE 2013] Carb on dioxide, it turns lime water milky. In. Referring to the Facilitated Diffusion results, what was the glucose transport rate (mM/min) when the glucose concentration was 8 mM and there were 700 glucose carrier proteins? 0.0031 2. A 2 M NaCl solution and a 2 M glucose solution are separated by a membrane that is permeable to water, but not to the NaCl or glucose These ions act as a reducing agent which will reduce the iodine, I2 formed in the first reaction to back to iodide ions, I- according to the equation below: 2S2O32-(aq) + I2(aq) S4O62-(aq) + 2I-(aq lithium therapy two to three days before the expected delivery date to reduce neonatal concentrations and reduce the risk of maternal lithium intoxication due to the change in vascular volume which occurs during delivery. At deliver y, vascular volume rapidly decreases and the renal clearance of lithium may decrease to pre-pregnancy concentrations

### 8.1: Concentrations of Solutions - Chemistry LibreText

The WHO global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol aims to give guidance for action at all levels; to set priority areas for global action; and to recommend a portfolio of policy options and measures that could be considered for implementation and adjusted as appropriate at the national level, taking into account national circumstances, such as religious and cultural contexts. pH is a metric used to specify the acidity (or basicity, also called alkalinity) of an aqueous solution. The pH of a solution is determined by the relative activities of the hydronium (H3O+)ions and the hydroxide (OH-)ions in the solution. The pH of a solution in which the activities of these two ions are equal - such as pure water at 25 ÂºC - is 7.00 Sodium hypochlorite has a relative density of is 1,1 (5,5% watery solution). As a bleaching agent for domestic use it usually contains 5% sodium hypochlorite (with a pH of around 11, it is irritating). If it is more concentrated, it contains a concentration 10-15% sodium hypochlorite (with a pH of around 13, it burns and is corrosive) Oxcarbazepine, a keto-analogue of carbamazepine, was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of seizures of partial onset. Some patients treated with oxcarbazepine showed the development of hyponatremia, which in most instances was asymptomatic. Understanding the mechanisms by which These drugs may increase serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) concentration. Androgens / Anabolic Steroids Asparaginase Glucocorticoids Slow-Release Nicotinic Acid: These drugs may decrease serum TBG concentration. Potential impact (below): Administration of these agents with Synthroid results in an initial transient increase in FT4

The muscles produce CO 2 and H + as a result of increased metabolism, setting up concentration gradients in the opposite direction from the O 2 gradient. The CO 2 and H + flow from the muscles to the blood via these concentration gradients. The buffering action of hemoglobin picks up the extra H + and CO 2 A hypertonic solution is one which has a higher solute concentration than another solution. An example of a hypertonic solution is the interior of a red blood cell compared with the solute concentration of fresh water. When two solutions are in contact, solute or solvent moves until the solutions reach equilibrium and become isotonic with.

These include art, science, and cleaning supplies, asthma triggers like dust mites and molds, and diesel exhaust from school buses. The EPA has an action kit for schools to help identify and reduce these sources of indoor air pollution. Office buildings can also have significant sources of indoor air pollution H 2 + I 2 + HEAT 2HI: Above example is an endothermic reaction. If we increase the temperature of system, then the equilibrium will shift in the forward direction where more amounts of HI will be obtained and the concentration of H 2 and I 2 will decrease at equilibrium What is NO 2 and how does it get in the air?. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2) is one of a group of highly reactive gases known as oxides of nitrogen or nitrogen oxides (NO x).Other nitrogen oxides include nitrous acid and nitric acid. NO 2 is used as the indicator for the larger group of nitrogen oxides.. NO 2 primarily gets in the air from the burning of fuel. NO 2 forms from emissions from cars.

Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution is not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution, can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions As noted in chapter 6 (of the full assessment), the sources of releases of mercury to the biosphere can be grouped in four major categories. Two of these categories (releases due to natural mobilisation of mercury and re-mobilisation of anthropogenic mercury previously deposited in soils, sediments and water bodies) are not well understood and largely beyond human control These conditions include temperature, then concentration of salt, and the pH level. If the optimum conditions for an enzyme are altered, the enzyme may denature, or change its shape, and deactivate. As a result, the enzyme would no longer to be able to catalyze the reaction, and the reaction rate would significantly decrease (Worthington. Test Interactions. Falsely high plasma phenytoin concentrations may occur when measured by immunoanalytical techniques (eg, TD X, TD X FL X, Emit 2000).Phenytoin may produce falsely low results for serum concentrations of T 4 and T 3, and dexamethasone or metyrapone tests.Phenytoin may cause increased serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; usually in the absence of clinical.

Action of Antacids. Antacids as weak bases, raise the pH of the stomach acid. This does not mean that the stomach secretions are now alkaline but rather that it is less acidic. When antacids make contact and react with stomach acid (HCl), water and a salt, like sodium chloride or calcium chloride, is formed. In addition, carbon dioxide gas may. 2019 as second hottest year on record. 2019 was the second highest on record. Only 2016 was hotter due to El Niño. 2015-2019 are the five warmest years on record while 2010-2019 is the warmest. The best policy ideas in the world aren't worth much if we don't have activists, experts, and everyday people fighting for change. From school groups to churches; from corporate boardrooms to mayors and local leaders: we need action. The Union of Concerned Scientists has worked on global warming solutions for over 30 years 1-3 Public health actions are needed to reduce the exposure of both workers and the general population to benzene. Sources of exposure to benzene . Benzene is highly volatile, and most exposure is through inhalation. Benzene is degraded rapidly in the upper atmosphere. Because of its solubility in water, a minor amount may b

To learn more about actions that can reduce these emissions, see What EPA is Doing and What You Can Do. Top of Page. Changes in the sun's energy affect how much energy reaches Earth's system. The sun's energy received at the top of Earth's atmosphere has been measured by satellites since 1978 Chapter 2 The Regulatory Environment Answers to End of Chapter Discussion Questions 2.1 What factors do U.S. antitrust regulators consider before challenging a merger or acquisition? Answer: Regulators attempt to measure the likelihood of increased market power, i.e., the ability to raise prices resulting from a business combination. Initially, regulators examine the size of the market and the. Hypertonic hyperosmolar imbalances result in an extracellular fluid concentration greater than 0.9% salt solution e.g. water loss or solute gain; cells shrink in a hypertonic fluid see Table 3-7. This shrinking of cells results in the symptoms described in the question The procedure for preparing a solution of known concentration from a stock solution is shown in Figure 8.10. It requires calculating the amount of solute desired in the final volume of the more dilute solution and then calculating the volume of the stock solution that contains this amount of solute

2. Adding pure water to a saturated solution (with some solids) would cause the concentration of that solution to initially. increase / decrease / remain the same. (circle) 3. Adding a solid salt to a saturated solution causes the concentration of that solution to . increase / decrease / remain the same. 4. Evaporation acting on an unsaturated. We know the volume we added, and the concentration of the solution, so we simply multiply these together to find the number of moles. Note that there is one catch: in this equation, volume needs to be in decimetres cubed, not centimetres cubed, so we'll need to divide our volume in centimetres cubed by 1000 to get it into decimetres cubed C) a decrease in the concentration of NaCl and a decrease in the water level 33. Five dialysis bags constructed of membrane, which is permeable to water and impermeable to sucrose, were filled with various concentrations of sucrose and then placed in separate beakers containing an initial concentration of 0.6 M sucrose solution Buffer solution: what is it and how does it work to resist changes in its pH? A buffer is a solution that resists changes in its pH when small amounts of strong acid or base is added to it.Small amount is bolded to stress the fact that if you add too much strong acid or base to your buffer, it's pH will change These are items we use each day, and then get rid of by putting them into the trash. Solid waste comes from homes, businesses and industries. If you want to reduce solid waste, you need to look at some of the following ways to reduce, reuse and recycle

In these cases, stopping or altering medication or drug use can often reduce sexual compulsions such as excessive masturbation. Some forms of psychological therapy may also help reduce CSBs and. The antipyretic actions of acetaminophen are likely attributed to direct action on heat-regulating centers in the brain, Almasilate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Acetaminophen resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy

### Chem 125 - Experiment II - University of Michiga

The concentration of a substance can be expressed in a variety of ways depending on the nature of a substance. Aqueous solutions typically have their concentrations expressed in mol/L. For example, a solution made by dissolving sodium hydroxide in water has its concentration expressed as moles of NaOH per litre of solution The solution therefore comes back to equilibrium when the dissociation of water is so small that the OH-ion concentration is only 1.0 x 10-12 M. Adding an acid to water therefore has an effect on the concentration of both the H 3 O + and OH-ions. Because it is a source of this ion, adding an acid to water increases the concentration of the H 3. Question 14. At high concentration of soap in water, soap behaves as (a) molecular colloid (b) associated colloid (c) macromolecular colloid (d) lyophilic colloid . Solution: (b) At low concentration soap behaves as strong electrolyte but at higher concentration it behaves as colloid due to formation of aggregates called micelles. These are.

These effects are easily explained in terms of competing forward- and reverse reactions— that is, by the law of mass action. If a reaction is exothermic (releases heat), an increase in the temperature will force the equilibrium to the left, causing the system to absorb heat and thus partially ofsetting the rise in temperature Dextrose Injection, USP solution. • The final concentration of the diluted solution should be between 0.5 mg/mL to 7.2 mg/mL. • Gently invert the intravenous bag to mix the diluted solution. Do not shake the intravenous bag. • Discard any unused portion left in the vial(s). Do not administer as an intravenous push or bolus Measuring carbon footprint. By assessing how much pollution an organization's actions generate, you can begin to see how minor policy changes can significantly reduce a company's overall carbon footprint. A carbon footprint can be measured by undertaking a greenhouse gas emissions assessment. Once the size of your carbon footprint is known, you can devise a strategy to reduce it through.

### Chemistry Test 3 Flashcards Quizle

A solution whose volume is 500.0 mL contains 10.0 mg of glucose (C_6H_12O_6). What is the concentration of glucose in ppm by mass, assuming that the density of the solution is 1.00 g/mL? a) 10.0 b).. Osmoles are used to describe the concentration in terms of number of particles - a 1 osmolar solution contains 1 mole of osmotically-active particles (molecules and ions) per liter. The classic demonstration of osmosis and osmotic pressure is to immerse red blood cells in solutions of varying osmolarity and watch what happens An unripe mango placed in a concentrated salt solution to prepare pickle, shrivels because. Solution: (d) Water starts moving out of mango (lower concentration) to the salt solution (higher concentration) due to osmosis. Question 13. At a given temperature, osmotic pressure of a concentrated solution of a substance For aqueous KCl solution, γ i varies as a function of concentration from about 0.97 for 1 mM to 0.61 for 1 M KCl concentration [15]. This decrease in activity coefficient leads to the diffusion coefficient decreasing with total salt concentration, while the flux is also linearly related to the activity

### Match the action to the effect on the equilibrium position

The concentration gradient is the difference of concentration between these two areas, and diffusion is demonstrated when substances move down the concentration gradient. On the other hand, active transport moves substances from a low concentration area to an area with a higher concentration, which is the exact opposite of passive transport concentration of N2O4 will increase to and the concentration of NO2 will decrease to . 224 nitrogendioxide dinitrogentetraoxide 2NO (g) N O (g)→ These observations can be summed up by Le Chatelier's Principle: When a system at equilibrium is subjected to a disturbance, it will respond such that the effect of the disturbance is minimized

### chapter 12 knweton homework Flashcards Quizle

Use of the proper concentration of a disinfectant is important to achieve the best results for each situation. Some products will have different dilutions depending on the desired use of the product (i.e., -static versus -cidal action). Although some disinfectants may be more efficacious at higher concentrations, these levels may be limited b Concentration camps (Konzentrationslager; abbreviated as KL or KZ) were an integral feature of the regime in Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945.The term concentration camp refers to a camp in which people are detained or confined, usually under harsh conditions and without regard to legal norms of arrest and imprisonment that are acceptable in a constitutional democracy Updated May 25, 2019. The acid dissociation constant is the equilibrium constant of the dissociation reaction of an acid and is denoted by K a. This equilibrium constant is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in a solution. K a is commonly expressed in units of mol/L There are ways to prevent, control and eventually reduce air pollution: 1. Renewable fuel and clean energy production. The most basic solution for air pollution is to move away from fossil fuels, replacing them with alternative energies like solar, wind and geothermal. 2 Lowering blood pressure. Slowing your breathing rate. Improving digestion. Maintaining normal blood sugar levels. Reducing activity of stress hormones. Increasing blood flow to major muscles. Reducing muscle tension and chronic pain. Improving concentration and mood. Improving sleep quality

Mitigation - reducing climate change - involves reducing the flow of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, either by reducing sources of these gases (for example, the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heat or transport) or enhancing the sinks that accumulate and store these gases (such as the oceans, forests and soil).. Lactulose is a synthetic sugar used to treat constipation. It is broken down in the colon into products that pull water out from the body and into the colon. This water softens stools. Lactulose is also used to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood of patients with liver disease. It works by drawing ammonia from the blood into the colon. Determine the concentration of Z in equilibrium with 0.2 mol X and 0.50 M Y at 500K. A) 3.2 M B) 3.5 M C) 4.5 M D) 7.1 M E) None of these. Ans: