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Xylitol biofilm Reddit

Well, I'm really considering using xylitol on my scalp and face to break up the biofilm, but I'm wondering if anyone has had good experiences using it to do so. Everything in my routine is fungal safe, so I'm hoping this will be a good addition. If you've used it/are using it, please explain how often and how much it has helped Xylitol. Has anyone heard about Xylitol for reducing the Biofilm found on Skin and in Hair Folicles in patients with HS. 0 comments. 100% Upvoted I was looking for some biofilm disruptor and/or antifungal to put on my scalp and that doesn't need to be washed, I mean, something to put maybe daily but always considering that I wash my hairs every 5-7 days. So, I thought about xylitol, can I just mix it water and spray it on my scalp (trying to avoid my hairs) and let it dry without.

Xylitol saved my life. I am aware that some of you have tried this and failed, but it has genuinely been pure magic on my ski, and I want you to try again. My face was so incredibly rashed and scaled and flaky with diagnosed seb derm. Around my nose, under my eyes, my head, behind ears, and worst of all around my chin area under my beard Xylitol. Thoughts? So I've been looking for something to help sweeten somethings as I transition from sugar to none. In my reasearch xylitol was mentioned, there was some talk about it interfering with yeast adhering to things. Has anyone given it a go? This brings me to a desperate thought Reddit gives you the best of the internet in one place. to disrupt biofilms. It mentioned your method too of using sugar alcohols, where one of the sugar alcohols you used, xylitol, is commonly used in chewing gum to prevent dental plaque, aka a biofilm. induced by harsh products, etc, research is limited so we just don't know. However. Xylitol is a common additive in chewing gums to help reduce dental plaque (the most recognizable biofilm). Lactoferricin. Wound healing is an important aspect of biofilm research. Lactoferricin can disrupt biofilms and promote wound healing [7]

Experiences with xylitol? : SebDerm - reddi

  1. Xylitol and the Nose and Sinuses. For allergy sufferers, those with chronic sinus infections and ear infections, xylitol works in much the same way as it does with the bacteria in the mouth. The same bacterial biofilm is found in cases of chronic nasal and sinus inflammation (rhinosinusitis). Xylitol, combined with saline, disrupts the biofilm.
  2. Biofilm bacteria generally tolerate antibiotic treatment and this is because antibiotics can't pass through the biofilm enough [3, 5]. Biofilms are known to be involved in many chronic infections such as in a chronic wound, lung, ear, heart and nose infections [ 4 ]
  3. Now xylitol is a sugar alcohol, but it has activity against biofilm, and this is one of the reasons why xylitol chewing gum has become popular amongst dentists. As I just mentioned, plaque is a biofilm, so if you chew xylitol gum, that can actually help break up plaque
  4. Farnesol and xylitol were shown to possess antibiofilm and antibacterial effects when used in root canal irrigants. [Alves et al., 2013] Xylitol is a low-carb sweetener found in toothpaste and diet sodas. When bacteria incorporate xylitol into the biofilm, it makes for a flimsy structure. [Morgan, 2015
  5. d

Reddit; Abstract. With an epidemic increase in obesity combined with an ageing population, chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers are an increasing clinical concern. For both a single species biofilm and a dual species biofilm, the lactoferrin/xylitol hydrogel in combination with the silver wound. Xylitol, a synthetic sugar used as a sucrose substitute, has been shown to reduce biofilm formation. However, its precise mechanism of action on biofilm reduction has so far not been elucidated. Previous studies demonstrate that bacterial β‐glucosidase action is crucial for biofilm formation

Xylitol : HidradenitisAIP - reddit

Xylitol is a sugar alcohol that is similar to sugar without the blood sugar effect and that has some benefits for dental health but also some cautions. Facebook Tweet Pin LinkedIn Reddit. The fact that xylitol breaks up oral biofilms has led some researchers to investigate whether xylitol can be used to treat biofilm infections in. Lactoferrin - or lactoferrin with xylitol. Lactoferrin is the only product that helped and did an excellent job. Lactoferrin is naturally produced and one of its job is preventing biofilm formation. Caution must be taken when using, take it slow

Xylitol and l ‐carbohydrates induced the lowest adhesion and biofilm formation in both the tested species, while sorbitol and mannitol did not promote C. albicans biofilm formation. Higher adhesion and biofilm formation was noted in both organisms in the presence of d ‐carbohydrates relative to their l ‐carbohydrate counterparts Anti-biofilm efficacy of a lactoferrin/xylitol wound hydrogel used in combination with silver wound dressings. Int Wound J. 2011;8:268-273. Nusbaum A, Kirsner R, Charles CA Kurola P, Tapiainen T, Sevander J, Kaijalainen T, Leinonen M, Uhari M, Saukkoriipi A. Effect of xylitol and other carbon sources on Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and gene expression in v.. Reddit; Wechat; Get access to the full version of this article. For both a single species biofilm and a dual species biofilm, the lactoferrin/xylitol hydrogel in combination with the silver wound dressing Acticoat™ had a statistically significant reduction in biofilm viability relative to the commercially available wound hydrogel. This.

r/SebDerm - Some biofilm disruptor/antifungal - reddit

  1. 7 Natural Agents That Disrupt Biofilms. Biofilms are protective shields that microbes use to guard themselves from our immune system. We live in an amazingly fast-paced society that makes ground-breaking advances in science almost constantly. Every time we make a new discovery, it opens the doors to newer and deeper questions
  2. We hypothesized that xylitol inhibits biofilm formation of pneumococci, and measured biofilm formation and gene expression levels of the capsule gene cpsB and two other genes: autolysin encoding gene lytA and competence gene comA in different growth media in vitro. Twenty pneumococcal isolates were grown on polystyrene plates for 18 h in test.
  3. Xylitol is a 5-carbon alcohol sugar which cannot be easily metabolized by cariogenic bacteria, unlike 6-carbon sugars such as monosaccharides/simple sugars (i.e., glucose, fructose, galactose) and sorbitol or disaccharides/double sugars (i.e., sucrose/table sugar, lactose, maltose). 3 Xylitol reduces levels of S. mutans in biofilm and saliva by.
  4. A Syndrome Which is Quite Common. Chronic Sinusitis, nasal polyposis, asthma and eosinophilia are quite common and may co-exist as a syndrome. Chronic bacterial or fungal sinus infection with Bio-Film formation has been implicated in this syndrome. Many of these patients have been on multiple courses of antibiotics and/or antifungal drugs which.
  5. [ 46, 47, 48 ], Cinnamon [ 49 ], Black Pepper, Basil, Black Cu
  6. Within a biofilm, one or more types of bacteria and/or fungi share nutrients and DNA and undergo changes to evade the immune system. Since it requires less oxygen and fewer nutrients and alters the pH at the core, the biofilm is a hostile community for most antibiotics. In addition, the biofilm forms a physical barrier that keeps most immune.

This habit prevents exposure to acidity and promotes a healthy biofilm. Xylitol feeds healthy probiotic bacteria, encourages a flow of saliva, and makes harmful plaque slippery and less acidic. Now Read the Studies. When you read the studies, you will see that cranberry juice and green tea can help remove biofilm It really did help prevent a biofilm from forming, but eventually I noticed I was getting more buildup by the end of the day and my mouth seemed to be getting sensitive. It's known that bacteria can adapt to using xylitol for energy, in fact that's stated as one of the benefits, but in my case I think they may have adapted too well

Xylitol saved my life : SebDerm - reddit

Messages. 1,309. I have used xylitol as a sweetner and as a sinus rinse for years. I think it works great as a sinus rinse, you can make your own by adding a 1/4 tsp to 2 oz. of water with a drop or two of GSE and a pinch of sea salt. As a sweetner it depends on if you are bowel sensitive to xylitol 27. adreno said: Xylitol breaks up biofilm. You can get ready made xylitol nasal sprays, such as this one, or you could mix your own solution. Click to expand... I tried mixing my own solution of birch xylitol and it was not good, I simply added water and salt and it made it worse. Don't know why thou

Breaking biofilms is a very inexact science in humans. They can show clearly that a biofilm in a test tube can survive directly being doused with bleach, but can be completely broken apart by Banderol + Samento (cat's claw). This same process has proven impossible to prove within the body Wolcott also uses lactoferrin and xylitol to treat biofilms. Lactoferrin occurs naturally in tears, mucus and breast milk and appears to prevent bacteria from clumping together. It is used commercially in meat packing plants to prevent biofilms from growing on hides. Xylitol occurs in fruits, vegetables and other plants A permanent bacterial biofilm in the sinuses can ignite an immune response leading to chronic sinus infections, with symptoms including fever and cold-like symptoms. So far, the most effective treatment is to surgically remove the affected tissue. Bacteria also form permanent, mostly lifelong, biofilms in the mucus-filled lungs of cystic. It contains Bactroban and Xylitol, which kill the bacterial infections (and clinically appear to even fight biofilm infections), low dose cortisol to shrink the swelling and an antifungal. I recommend patients use 1 to 2 sprays in each nostril twice a day for 6-12 weeks while on the Diflucan. That is usually enough to knock out the sinusitis. Shutterstock. According to an in vitro study posted on Dec. 21 that has not been peer-reviewed, researchers from Northwestern University and Utah State University tested the effectiveness of an over-the-counter nasal spray known as Xlear Sinus Care against cultures of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID. Ingredients of the spray include 11 percent xylitol—which is a chemical compound.

Xylitol. Thoughts? : Candida - reddit.co

Meet Your Dental Plaque. Your mouth is full of bacteria — both good, protective, beneficial bacteria and harmful, disease-promoting bacteria. Just like with the bacteria in your gut, the goal for a healthy mouth is to promote the good, protective bacteria and keep the bad bacteria at bay. And guess whatxylitol does just that Healing Skin by altering it's pH & microbial (Malassezia) profile. Skin conditions such as Psoriasis, Eczema, atopic dermatitis, Dandruff, dry skin, Tinea Versicolor, Rosacea, Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Acne are in many cases thought to be caused by the fungus Malassezia. Few people know this but natural healthy skin has a pH around 4 • Farnesol and xylitol, each agent alone, inhibited a different stage of biofilm formation but when used concomitantly, they inhibited biofilm formation and also disrupted mature biofilm

Unless healthy biofilm is restored, this damage will continue. Dentists often suggest a bite plate or night guard, to protect vulnerable enamel. I prefer to restore healthy biofilm through correct nutrition, probiotics, xylitol use( Zellies) and the system of oral care that can restore the balance of correct bacteria in the mouth Xylitol is playing a big role in sinus and respiratory health. Read these and other studies showing why doctors are recommending Xlear's Xylitol based products. Dental and Oral Health. Our Spry brand dental defense system promotes a healthier smile. Our dentist recommended defense system provides a range of products for every member of the family The sugar replacement compound xylitol has gained increasing attention because of its use in many commercial food products, dental-hygiene articles, and pharmaceuticals. It can be classified by the origin of the raw material used for its production. The traditional birch xylitol is considered a premium product, in contrast to xylitol produced from agriculture byproducts such as corn.

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Statistics show that adults in the United States have more periodontal disease than was previously thought. About 50% of young adults 30 years old have some level of gum disease and are unaware of it, mainly because the condition is painless and usually does not cause bleeding or swelling. Ask Your Dentist Periodontal disease is [ Diabetic patients often have ulcers on their lower-limbs that are infected by multiple biofilm-forming genera of bacteria, and the elimination of the biofilm has proven highly successful in resolving such wounds in patients. To that end, antimicrobial peptides have shown potential as a new anti-biofilm approach. The single human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 has been shown to have antimicrobial. Xylitol also helps reduce biofilm (the thin, slimy film of bacteria that adheres to a surface) by preventing bacteria from communicating and producing the slime that holds it's colonies together. Once the film is gone, the bad bacteria slide off the surface of the teeth

Treating Seborrheic Dermatitis Biofilm

New findings about the Perio plus products and their effect on biofilm:. Perio plus forte mouth rinse (0.2% CHX) and Perio plus focus gel (0.5% CHX) were the only solutions out of all those tested that significantly reduced the activity of cariogenic biofilm; Perio plus forte killed all cariogenic bacteria in established biofilm; Perio plus protect mouth rinse (0.12% CHX) was equally as. Biofilm-grown bacteria are refractory to antimicrobial agents and show an increased capacity to evade the host immune system. In recent years, studies have begun on biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, using a variety of in vitro model systems. The bacterial cells in these biofilms are held together by an extracellular matrix composed of DNA, proteins and. Xylitol also has cleansing benefits; it Almost acts like soap for your nose. The industry-leading formula alleviates congestion and also prevents pollutants from sticking to nasal tissues. Now you can naturally promote upper respiratory health while alleviating congestion with Xlear Rescue saline Nasal Spray with xylitol

How Xylitol Can Help Ears, Nose This Spring Explored

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is defined as the presence of an abnormally high number of coliform bacteria in the small bowel.First, make sure you've read part 1 of this blog: Understanding Sibo, which goes into understanding the condition, the symptoms, and how to properly diagnose it. So, you have SIBO or suspect you do, and you are most likely REALLY confused There is an integral connection between the health of your mouth, the health of your gut, and really the health of your entire body. This post shares why taking care of your oral health is so important and some easy ways to level up your oral hygiene According to the report from a workshop organized by ORCA and Cariology Research Group of IADR, the proper definition and terminology associated with the definition of dental caries is Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, diet modulated, multifactorial, non-communicable, dynamic disease resulting in net mineral loss of dental hard tissues [Fejerskov 1997; Pitts et al., 2017] The global anti-biofilm wound dressing market was valued at USD 575.4 million in 2019 and size is expected to reach USD 1,154.2 million by 2027 to grow at a CAGR of 9.2% during the forecast period Erythritol is the smallest molecular member of the polyol family, a four-carbon sugar, it is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. Introduced to the market in 1990, it is available in over sixty countries today. It is the only polyol commercially produced from sugars and starches by fermentation 1 . Wine, sake, beer, watermelon, pears, grapes and.

54 Natural Ways to Inhibit Biofilms - SelfHacke

Pet Age recently spoke with Martin Shimko, CEO of SwedencareUSA, the U.S. and Canadian manufacturer of ProDen PlaqueOff, an oral healthcare product developed in Sweden. How has dental care for pets changed since 2005? There has been a steady progression of knowledge and awareness of companion animal dental care over the last 15 years. Over time, the [ Buy Astroglide Natural Feel Liquid, Water Based Personal Lubricant, 2.5 oz. on Amazon.com FREE SHIPPING on qualified order 4.9 star rating 119 Reviews. 16.0 OZ. The pH Balancing Mouthwash is made to work with the oral ecosystem, not against it, the naturally alkaline mouthwash inhibits the growth of bad bacteria and leaves the mouth healthy and fresh. May contain soy. Ingredients The other point that is often overlooked about xylitol is that it is a natural compound. Xylitol also helps to reduce bacterial biofilm (that sticky stuff you feel on your teeth). Unlike other sugars (carbohydrates, xylitol does not link together to form polysaccharides)

Highly Effective (But Little Known) Treatment for Chronic

For similar reasons it is in natural toothpastes. It breakups biofilms that bacteria create, moisturizes the nasal passages (which keeps you from getting sick), starves and kills bacteria because they are unable to process xylitol like they do sug.. Oral probiotics from healthy mouths don t allow a biofilm to form, or they at least take up the space that the other early colonizers would use. I learned the this really exciting term a few years ago: Domesticate Bacteria. That term still gets my heart to flutter. With xylitol we kind of do that, but it doesn t work like probiotics

Lubricity also contains xylitol, which is known to prevent bacterial growth in the mouth, reducing the risk of infection. Learn More. What is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is a common condition. It occurs due to medical treatment, disease and injury. Dry mouth symptoms are uncomfortable and annoying. In more severe cases, it causes mouth sores, skin. Food manufacturers claim sweeteners help prevent tooth decay, control blood sugar levels and reduce our calorie intake. EFSA has approved the health claims made about xylitol, sorbitol and sucralose, among others, in relation to oral health and controlling blood sugar levels. Dietitian Emma Carder states: Research into sweeteners shows they're. Updated and reposted on 6/8/2018. CLIMATE CHANGE HAS LANDED US IN ANOTHER BAD ALLERGY SEASON AND I'M HEARING FROM MANY PEOPLE THAT THEY'RE IN MISERY AGAIN WITH SEVERE SINUS CONGESTION. SO I'M REPOSTING THIS PIECE DESCRIBING THE PROTOCOL I CAME UP WITH TWO YEARS AGO FOR CLEARING SINUS CONGESTION WITHOUT PHARMACEUTICALS. I RARELY SUCCUMB TO Continue reading What I Did for Sinus Misery

The other microbiome shifts appear to be in different clusters of microbiome shifts. This 2017 paper by Peterson, Klimas, Komaroff, Lipkin (and a stack of other CFS researchers) makes that clear in its title: Fecal metagenomic profiles in subgroups of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome 8. Xylitol Products. Xylitol is amazing for preventing and fighting tooth decay. It is a non sugar, zero calorie sweetener made from birch trees that actually tastes exactly like sugar — great for diabetics! Turns out, it's also fabulous at preventing tooth decay. You can brush with xylitol powder and use the dental defense gum after meals Julia Parsons. 713-798-4710. Houston, TX - Apr 6, 2015. Content. New sinus therapeutics, including baby shampoo sinus irrigation and probiotic sinus rinses, can lessen symptoms and ward off sinus infections, according to doctors at Baylor College of Medicine. These new therapies are targeting the bacteria in ways that haven't been utilized.

Natural Anti-Biofilm Agents The Science of Nutritio

Chronic Sinus Problems? Try the Bulletproof Sinus Rins

Sugar alcohols like xylitol and sorbitol are well known for their ability to help kill bad dental bacteria. However, erythritol is even more powerful than xylitol for dental health. Erythritol can suppress bad bacteria growth, reduce acids in the mouth that can cause tooth decay, and inhibit biofilm formation Xylitol is the only thing that actually breaks down biofilm. I use it in my shampoo and as a facial scrub and it instantly cured my rosacea. I started using it for teeth and gums and it has markedly reversed my perio disease. As for the pitsafter xylitol I spray magnesium oil with peppermint essential oilI stay fresh all day Biofilm (plaque) just needs to be physically broken for removal. You can just use a soft tooth brush along your gum line for biofilm and stain removal. If you Google Modified Bass methodit will demonstrate how to angle the brush to remove plaque from under the gums and also help with angulation so you are not too rough on those areas

Pleasant taste. As an alcohol-free solution, Perio plus also contains VP-VA, which forms a protective film over the teeth, gums and mucous membranes. VP-VA is combined with xylitol to ensure the longevity of results by up to 12 hours and provide a strong defence against dental caries. With solutions for both short- and long-term use, Perio plus. I am impressed with my teeth since focusing on xylitol. The mints are super easy to make! Also this link is great. Rinsing mouth and brushing teeth with xylitol sugar can stop tooth decay and heal gum disease Based on this I am using earthpaste as my toothpaste and xylitol+saliva as the rinse - 3 min Ammouns et al. (2009) found the 5% xylitol could prevent biofilm formation, in vitro, of a wound clinical isolated strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Kontiokari et al. (1998) evaluated the adherence of microorganisms in the presence of 5% xylitol which prevented the Streptococcus pneumoniae adhesion, and, in a lesser proportion, the Haemophilus. This investigation proposes to evaluate the behavior of xylitol and mannitol as plasticizers for calcium alginate films. The moisture content, water-soluble matter, water uptake degree, water vapor permeability, mechanical resistance like strength and elongation at break, glass transition temperature, morphology, color and opacity were determined and the values found were compared to films.

Washing hands, wearing face masks and having a healthy distance are current measures that greatly help to avoid the spread of the coronavirus, however, the use of nasal sprays with xylitol for nasal hygiene is a health strategy that would help reduce the risk of contagion of the virus SARS-CoV-2, according to recent research carried out in the. Methylation Inhibited by Candida's Toxin. by Dr. Ben Lynch on September 8, 2012 in Rants & Raves. Repairing the digestive system and optimizing the flora should be one of the first steps in correcting methylation deficiency. There are countless reasons for this; however, the focus here is the relation between methionine synthase and.

Anti‐biofilm efficacy of a lactoferrin/xylitol wound

Oil Pulling is sometimes called oil gargling and it is an old Ayurvedic method of cleaning the mouth that is said to have originated in India some 2,000 years ago. Currently there is excitement about oil pulling in online articles and blogs, and if you have bad breath or gum disease, oil pulling may be [ This version of candida — which often spreads through candida biofilms on surfaces such as catheters and bedrails — has proven resistant to multiple drugs, resulting in serious illness. Candida albicans is the most common type of yeast infection found in the mouth, intestinal tract and vagina (vaginal/genital candidiasis), and it may affect. A biofilm is a matrix that pathogens like Candida albicans build to protect themselves from your immune system. [3] An added bonus is that erythritol and xylitol are both able to inhibit Streptococcus mutans. Like Candida, this bacteria relies on sugar for survival. Reddit LifeProTips. There you go, 100 awesome life hacks that you can. The Western Ecological Research Center (WERC) is a USGS Ecosystems Mission Area operation serving primarily California and Nevada. WERC scientists work closely with Federal, State, academic, and other collaborators to address a diverse array of high-profile topics. Topics include research on effects of wildfire, sea level rise, drought, energy development and more on federa Honestly, No. I think you should brush your teeth twice-a-day. Brushing teeth twice a day not only benefits your dental, oral health but your physical health as well. Once in the morning before breakfast for not less than 2 minutes and in the even..

Effect of xylitol on salivary β‐glucosidase in humans

The Bottom Line. The foods to eat on the Candida diet include non-starchy vegetables, low-sugar fruits, healthy proteins, and fermented foods. Look for foods that are unprocessed and contain no added sugars. Avoid any foods that might promote inflammation, especially in the gut Late last year, I had the pleasure of doing an on-camera interview with Dr. Lon Jones, a retired DO who pioneered the use of xylitol for a range of medical conditions, ranging from chronic wounds to sinus infections. It turns out that xylitol inhibits the growth of bacterial biofilms; if used habitually it may even eliminate chronic bacterial infections

Xylitol: Is it Healthy or Safe? Wellness Mam

Also the plaques have largely to do with a biofilm, sticky fungus bacteria environment, created by normal/harmless skin Malassezia and Staphylococcus varieties. Your body can't break down the biofilm but these can: chitinase, essential oils (thyme oil, rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, etc.), sugar alcohols (xylitol etc.) The great fluoride debate. As hygienists, we know fluoride varnish is beneficial. We know it can reduce decay and sensitivity in a simple, quick way that lasts. We know we can apply fluoride varnish as soon as the first tooth erupts, hopefully warding off decay for a lifetime. As much as it may be ingrained in every part of our hygienist-being. Controlled and sustained release of antibacterial drugs is a promising approach to address challenges related to bacterial infections in biomedical implants. Biocompatible polyols like xylitol and mannitol are frequently used to synthesize cross-linked, biodegradable polyesters. Xylitol-based adipoyl and sebacoyl polyesters were synthesized by a catalyst free melt polyesterification technique. However, there are also benign and even beneficial bacteria living in your mouth. Here are some of the key differences between the good and the bad bacteria. 1. Feeding on Sugars. The bad bacteria love to eat sugars and starches. This is why your dentist may tell you not to eat a lot of sugar throughout the day Hi @Tommy73 when this bacteria is on the skin, there is no problem but when it gets in the mucous membranes such as the eyes, nose, mouth, throat and the urogenital tract it turns sugar into a slime. It is this slime that causes immune system activation. The slime also has substances which help it to hide. So when it is producing this slime it pushes out other bacteria and the slime helps them.

Xlear Conference Feb. 15 Richard Longland, who survived spinal disease to found the Arthoplasty Patient Foundation, urged dental professionals to empower patients through awareness about the prevalence of chronic illnesses. The bacterial-based diseases kill 550,000 Americans each year, Longland told an audience of dental professionals attending the Xlear conference in Cancun, Mexico, on Feb. Biofilms are a protective matrix that Candida albicans builds around itself. Eat non-starchy vegetables Sweet potatoes, potatoes, yams, corn, winter squash, beets, and peas contain lots of net carbs and are likely to raise your blood sugar more than non-starchy vegetables If you're looking for a dentist in Saginaw, we're always happy to accept new patients! You can request an appointment online or call the office at (989) 799-9133. And, as always, you can email me at alan@meadfamilydental.com. I always answer my own emails! By Alan Mead + |. 2012-07-02T14:00:40-04:00