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Tenosynovitis pathology outlines

Pathology Outlines - Tenosynovial giant cell tumor

  1. Diffuse type tenosynovial giant cell tumor. Essentially identical appearance to localized form at high magnification. Distinguished from localized form by large size, infiltrative growth or anatomic site (often intra-articular and in larger joints) Villonodular architecture when intra-articular. Giant cell tumor of soft tissue
  2. Definition / general Extra-articular, destructive villonodular hyperplasia with synovial mononuclear cells mixed with multinucleated giant cells, foam cells, siderophages and inflammatory cells Considered the soft tissue counterpart of pigmented villonodular synovitis - may represent extension of articular tumor since often occurs near a join
  3. Tenosynovitis with psammomatous calcification: a poorly recognized pseudotumor related to repetitive tendinous injury.. Am J Surg Pathol 34 (6): 892-5. doi : 10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181d95a36
  4. Stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, trigger finger, is a common clinical disorder causing painful locking or contracture of the involved digits, and most instances are idiopathic. This problem is generally caused by a size mismatch between the swollen flexor tendon and the thickened first annular pulley
  5. Definition: Tenosynovitis is the inflammationof the fluid-filled sheath (made from the synoviumor synovial membrane) that surrounds a tendon. Symptoms of tenosynovitis include pain, swelling and difficulty moving the particular joint where the inflammation occurs
  6. The histopathological appearances of the tendon sheath and synovium from 23 patients treated surgically for de Quervain's disease are described and compared with 24 controls. The condition was not characterized by inflammation, but by thickening of the tendon sheath and most notably by the accumulat

The specific pathology underlying a patient's symptoms determines prognosis and influences choice of treatment. For example, retrosternal chest pain of cardiac origin has a different natural history and treatment to apparently identical pain referred from the thoracic spine. Similarly, prognosis and treatment of a benign breas Tenosynovitis • It is an inflammation of synovial sheath that encloses the tendon Tubercular tenosynovitis of extensor tendon sheath 4 Kempson RL, Fletcher CDM, Evans HL, Henrickson MR, Sibley RS. Tumors of the Soft Tissues, Atlas of Tumor Pathology, AFIP Third Series, Fascicle 30, 2001; Fletcher CDM, Unni KK, Mertens F. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone, World Health Organization Classification of Tumours 2002; Weiss SW, Goldblum JR

(PDF) Complex Regional Pain Syndrome-Type 1 Presenting as

Tenosynovitis with psammomatous calcification, described in 1983 by Gravanis and Gaffney, is a distinctive clinicopathologic variant of idiopathic calcifying tenosynovitis or calcific tendonitis. However, tenosynovitis with psammomatous calcification is poorly recognized by pathologists and for granulomatous tenosynovitis. Sunday 22 August 2004. Etiology. tuberculous tenosynovitis. E. Pathology by systems. Cardiovascular system; Digestive syste The term idiopathic calcifying tenosynovitis (ICT) refers to a clinically and radiologically defined syndrome of pain and tendinous calcifications, most often involving the shoulder joint

Pathology Outlines - Tenosynovial giant cell tumour

Tenosynovium - Libre Patholog

  1. ation of the surgical pathology specimens revealed a spectrum of pathological findings generally consistent with traumatic tenosynovitis, but a few specimens had rheumatoid-like features
  2. Ditzels. Tonsils (at cut-up) are a common ditzel. ( WC /Katotomichelakis et al.) This article collects ditzels, which are, in the context of pathology, little specimens that are typically one or two slides and usually of little interest. The challenge in ditzels is not falling asleep... so one misses the unexpected (subtle) tumour
  3. de Quervain tendinopathy is a common cause of wrist pain in adults. It is most common among women between the ages of 30 and 50 years of age, including a small subset of women in the postpartum period [ 1-3 ]. These women tend to develop symptoms about four to six weeks after delivery

Nodular tenosynovitis also known as a giant cell tumor of tendon sheath is a localized form of pigmented villondoular synovitis, usually extra articular in location and shows the same pathological changes. Differential diagnoses include synovial sarcoma (usually bright signal on T2 and shows infiltrative edge), hemophilia and fibromatosis Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS; also known as tenosynovial giant cell tumor) is a monarticular tumorlike proliferation of synovium that occurs in joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. The condition is termed giant cell tumor of tendon sheath when it is extraarticular within a tendon sheath Tuberculosis of bones and joints. 1. Dr. Vishal Sankpal. 2. Spine Joints - Tubercular arthritis Long and flat bones - Tubercular osteomyelitis Short bones - Tubercular dactylitis Tendon sheath & bursae. 3. Most frequent site of osseous involvement by TB about 50 % of cases The disease was first described by Sir Percival Pott in1779, hence the.

Histopathology of tenosynovium in trigger finger

tenosynovitis - Humpath

Tenosynovitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the tendon sheath has a wide variety of causes and treatment considerations. Infectious forms of tenosynovitis can be rapid and progressive, resulting in damage to the tendon and surrounding structures, and in addition to antibiotics, may require surgical debridement and washout and sometimes. identification of tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) anywhere along its length (by elicitation of specific tenderness), the institution of modalities directed towards treatment of FHL pathology (such as a specific stretching regimen), or the inclusion of FHL tenosynovitis in the differential diagnosis. Th Background: Symptoms associated with flexor hallucis longus (FHL) pathology can manifest themselves anywhere along its length from the posterior leg to the plantar foot and the hallux. This study describes the spectrum of clinical presentations seen with FHL pathology, illustrates the relevant physical examination findings, and outlines a treatment approach

The histopathology of de Quervain's diseas

  1. Tenosynovitis with psammomatous calcification, described in 1983 by Gravanis and Gaffney, is a distinctive clinicopathologic variant of idiopathic calcifying tenosynovitis or calcific tendonitis. However, tenosynovitis with psammomatous calcification is poorly recognized by pathologists and for this reason has not been adopted widely as a distinct entity
  2. Signs. swelling, erythema, warm joint. Symptoms. +/-pain. Other. joint culture. Acute synovitis is an inflammatory process involving the synovium. This article deal with nonspecific causes of acute synovitis ( acute nonspecific synovitis )
  3. ation: Tendinopathy and Tenosynovitis Considerations. This chapter will explore the differential diagnosis of wrist tendinopathy and tenosynovitis by reviewing a systematic approach to exa
  4. Ultrasonography (US) is widely used for evaluation of wrist and hand pathology [].Recent evidence supports US in the evaluation of tenosynovitis at the wrist [7, 8], while also providing real-time patient interaction.Also, US has high sensitivity for many hand and wrist pathologies, is widely accessible, low cost, and lacks ionizing radiation []
  5. Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, also called nodular tenosynovitis, belongs to the localized variant of tenosynovial giant cell tumor. Tenosynovial giant cell tumors harbor a consistent chromosomal translocation, t(1;2)(p13;q37). The resultant fusion gene has a promoter of collagen type VI alpha-3.

Pilonidal sinus is a common condition typically affecting the region of the base of the spine or the intergluteal cleft.Other anatomic sites have been rarely reported. It is regarded by many authors within the follicular occlusion tetrad as the primary process appears to be follicular occlusion. Histology of pilonidal sinus. Sections show a dense inflammatory reaction usually occupying. Transient Synovitis of Hip is inflammation of the synovium and a common cause of hip pain in pediatric patients that must be differentiated from septic arthritis of the hip. Diagnosis is one of exclusion and can be suspected in a patient with hip pain with low CRP and near normal synovial WBC count. Treatment is usually anti-inflammatories and. Pathology of the biceps tendon is most often found in patients 18 to 35 years of age who are involved in sports, including throwing and contact sports, swimming, gymnastics, and martial arts

While there are many reasons for radial wrist pain, De Quervain's tenosynovitis is a common pathology and is described as stenosing tenosynovitis of the tendons within the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. 1 The prevalence of De Quervain's tenosynovitis in adults of working age (18-65 years) in the general population is approximately 1.3% of women and 0.5% of men, with peak. The long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) originates approximately 50% from the superior glenoid tubercle and the remainder from the superior labrum, with 4 different variations identified. 73 The proximal tendon is richly innervated, with sensory nerve fibers containing substance P and calcitonin generelated peptide. These substances are responsible for vasodilatation and plasma extravasation.

Introduction. Trigger finger (stenosing flexor tenosynovitis) is a condition in which the finger or thumb click or lock when in flexion, preventing a return to extension.. It can affect one or more tendons of the hand, with most cases occurring spontaneously in otherwise healthy individuals. It has a prevalence of approximately 2 in 100 people and can be associated with other conditions. Outline: • Tendon Pathology • Ligament Pathology • Inflammation • Masses Tibialis Posterior Tendon: • Medial malleolus -Longitudinal split -Complete tear: rheumatoid arthritis -Subluxation: retinaculum injury • Navicular -Avulsions: diabetic Tenosynovitis: US • Fluid distending tendon sheath -Anechoic or hypoechoic. Tenosynovial giant cell tumors mainly affect individuals between 25-50 years of age, with a median age of diagnosis of 40. However, these tumors can affect the elderly and younger children as well. There is a slight female preponderance in localized TGCT; however, in diffuse TGCT, there is no sex predilection Septic tenosynovitis of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) is the second most prevalent infection of deeper structures of the distal limb in cattle, after septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint. Depending on the type of infection and the involvement of adjacent anatomical structures, various surgical techniques may be used for therapy: Incising the DFTS to resect one. A visible outline of the tendon sheath on plain arthrography is suggestive of lack of inflammation; however, a negative arthrogram is seen in >30% of cases with biceps pathology. 27,28. MRI allows visualization of the biceps tendon, bicipital groove, bony osteophytes, and fluid. MRI is particularly helpful in identifying other associated pathology

Background: Symptoms associated with flexor hallucis longus (FHL) pathology can manifest themselves anywhere along its length from the posterior leg to the plantar foot and the hallux. This study describes the spectrum of clinical presentations seen with FHL pathology, illustrates the relevant physical examination findings, and outlines a. Sports U/S Online Didactics. These 35 educational modules cover all of the didactic instructional session topics recommended for sports medicine fellows by the AMSSM. Sports Ultrasound Committee. Find all the resources, materials and guidelines from the AMSSM Sports Ultrasound Committee. Patients Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) is a group of rare, typically non-malignant tumors of the joints. TGCT tumors often develop from the lining of joints (also known as synovial tissue).: 100: 245 Common symptoms of TGCT include swelling, pain, stiffness and reduced mobility in the affected joint or limb

Internet Scientific Publications

SStenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) at the ankle is an unusual chronic condition. Lewin reported the first case in 1940 in a ballet dancer. Since then, it has been well described in classical ballet dancers who impart considerable stress to the ankle during the pointe position of dance .In 1950, Lapidus and Seidenstein described the the occurrence of FHL tenosynovitis. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis. Intra-articular PVNS is a rare benign hypertrophic synovial proliferation affecting individuals in the third through fifth decades of life. Patients often present with a palpable mass and chronic pain. In addition, they may have significant loss of function. Malignant transformation is rare. 6 Flexor tendon injuries are some of the more common injuries, but yet complex injuries managed by hand surgeons. The flexor tendon mechanism plays a key role in the functionality of the hand. Physiotherapists and occupational therapists are often involved and play a key role in the post-surgical rehabilitation of flexor tendon repairs. A good understanding of the treatment procedures, healing. Digital flexor tendon sheath pathology can be difficult to diagnose and treat successfully. Here's a look at Dr. Florent David's approach, which he presented at the 2019 NEAEP Symposium Your shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint made up of three bones: your upper arm bone (humerus), your shoulder blade (scapula), and your collarbone (clavicle). There are two attachments of the biceps tendon at the shoulder joint. The head of your upper arm bone fits into a rounded socket in your shoulder blade. This socket is called the glenoid

Peroneal tendon pathology is frequent, especially tenosynovitis, but more significant changes like tendinopathy, tendon tears or tendon instability also occur. Of the two peroneal tendons, the peroneus brevis tendon is the most prone to injury as it is closely related to the lateral malleolus PATHOLOGY OF THE SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE IN GOUT LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDIES. INTERPRETATION OF CRYSTALS IN ELECTRON MICROGRAPHS H. RALPH SCHUMACHER also outlines the crystal clefts and one can wonder if in life it coats the crystal or is incorporated into it Giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath are the second most common tumors of the hand, with simple ganglion cysts being the most common. Chassaignac first described these benign soft-tissue masses in 1852, and he overstated their biologic potential in referring to them as cancers of the tendon sheath tenosynovitis: [ ten″o-sin″o-vi´tis ] inflammation of a tendon and its sheath, usually seen in the hands and wrists or feet and ankles; it is often the result of intense and continued use, as with pianists and typists. It is painful, and may temporarily disable the affected part. Rheumatoid and other types of arthritis frequently involve.

Histology. well circumscribed. multinucleated giant cells. hemosiderin pigment virtually always present. mononuclear cells. foamy macrophages. mitosis 3-5 per 10 hpf, but can be higher. can have rare, focal necrosis Pathology texts separate synovial cysts that have a true synovial lining (e.g., Baker's cysts) from ganglia, which are thought to be degenerative and are without a synovial lining. 235,236 Clinicians, however, usually use both terms interchangeably. 237 Symptoms of pain and weakness can occur, but most children present with an asymptomatic. Os trigonum syndrome with flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis in a professional football referee. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 31, No. 7(Suppl.), pp. S493-S496, 1999. The presentation of posterior ankle pain in any patient poses a diagnostic dilemma. The os trigonum syndrome and flexor hallucis longus stenosing tenosynovitis have been reported to occur in professional and amateur ballet dancers In practice, treatment is usually 10-14 days for cellulitis, three weeks for tenosynovitis, four weeks for septic arthritis, and six weeks for osteomyelitis. Conversion to oral antibiotics when the C reactive protein concentration falls to <50 mg/l is a pragmatic approach that we find works well in our hospital

Histopathology of tenosynovium in trigger fingers

Pathology Outlines - Subacute thyroiditis

Tubercular tenosynovitis

Desmoid tumor symptoms differ based on where the tumors occur. Desmoid tumors most often happen in the abdomen, arms and legs. But they can form anywhere in the body. In general, signs and symptoms include: A mass or area of swelling. Pain. Loss of function in the affected area. Cramping and nausea, when desmoid tumors occur in the abdomen Calcific tendinitis. Dr Dai Roberts and Abhi Datir et al. Calcific tendinitis (or calcific tendonitis) is a self-limiting condition due to the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite within tendons, usually of the rotator cuff. It is a common presentation of the hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease (HADD) . On this page: Article: Epidemiology

Conti4 notes that the specific pathology of tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction is inflammation of the tendon sheath (tenosynovitis, peritendonitis), rather than the tendon itself. This inflammation can result in thickening of the paratenon of the tend~n.~ Thus, peritendonitis (tenosynovitis) can lead to paratendi Summary Table (Table 2) that outlines the main results for each physical risk factor. In the subsequent sections (Single Risk Factors and Combined Risk Factors) a more Tenosynovitis of the first wrist extensor compartment is a condition that involves the Concurrent pathology involving the underlying synovial sheaths may or may not be. Diffuse tenosynovial giant-cell tumour. H&E stain. Diffuse tenosynovial giant-cell tumour is relatively common mostly benign chondro-osseous tumour of the large joints . It is also known as tenosynovial giant-cell tumour, diffuse type . Previously, it was known as pigmented villonodular synovitis, abbreviated PVNS pathology except for swelling in the right thenar region. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed chronic tenosynovitis. Mycobacterium tenosynovitis of the hand and outline the treatment. Fluid and hemorrhage (asterisks) at and distal to the retracted tendon outlines the torn tendons, as well as the psoas muscle further proximally. Differential diagnosis considerations. Pathology involving the hip joint or the tendons and muscles surrounding the IP musculotendinous complex may mimic the clinical presentation of IP tendinopathy

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The ultimate cure for the tendon pathology continues to elude current science. Despite great steps in technology, the causation and treatment is still not clear. The number of different theories and treatment modalities in the literature may confuse clinicians and patients. In this paper we outline the definitions, evolution of pathogenesis and treatment for tendinopathy to the pathology department, anaerobic or aerobic culture that needs to be immediately delivered to laboratory. Standard II Specimens to be transported to the pathology department should be placed in the proper container to preserve and protect the specimen. 1. Containers should be rigid, impermeable, unbreakable and non-reactive to fixativ Outline the neurological evaluation in patients with anterior interosseous syndrome. AIN syndrome should be clinically differentiating from stenosing tenosynovitis or pathologies limited to local pathology affecting the flexor tendons alone (i.e., flexor tendon adhesions or partial versus complete flexor tendon rupture).. From Libre Pathology. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Welcome to Libre Pathology! A wiki looking for contributors! Libre Pathology news: Libre Pathology in 2021. Weekly senior virtual case Weekly junior virtual case; Thirty year old woman with anasarca and renal failure

Video: Tenosynovitis with psammomatous calcification: a poorly

granulomatous tenosynovitis - Humpath

De Quervain's tenosynovitis. Table 3 1, 2, 21 - 23 outlines the methods and utility of tests that can help support specific diagnoses. For suspected mechanical pathology such as an. outlines factors ACC staff consider when making decisions on cover and entitlement requests. c. Pre-existing history of de Quervain pathology (on either side) preceding current event. d. Diabetes and inflammatory arthropathy. and/or during the post-partum period. Continued 8 Note: de Quervain tenosynovitis may present in association. a tendon pathology, which may be caused by inflammation (tendinitis) or repeated microtrauma (tendinosis). Findings on US include enlargement of the tendon with an ill- defined outline and decreased tendon echogenicity (Fig. 5). Increased intra -tendinous colour Doppler flow may also be seen, due to vascular in -growth. (1.5) Often, finding

Tenosynovitis With Psammomatous Calcifications: A

Paratendinopathies (eg, de Quervain's tenosynovitis) are also distinct in that the primary pathology is the paratendon rather than the tendon proper and are not discussed here. The general treatment of chronic tendinopathy will be discussed here. The pathophysiology of tendinopathy and the management of specific tendinopathies are reviewed. Wrist Pathology. Sitemap. The Wrist Region de Quervian's disease is a type of tenosynovitis or inflammation of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicus brevis tendons' sheath. This thickening is most evident in the small joints of the hand. In the MCP and MTP joints, the outline of the base of the proximal phalanx may become.

The histopathology of de Quervain's disease - ScienceDirec

Achilles tendinopathy is a common overuse injury caused by repetitive energy storage and releases with excessive compression. This can lead to a sudden injury, or in the worst case, can cause a rupture of the Achilles tendon. In both cases, a lack of flexibility or a stiff Achilles tendon can increase the risk of these injuries Therefore, ideas on tendinosis and tendon pathology need to be extrapolated from other more well-researched tendons such as the Achilles and patella (35). Tenosynovitis, tendinosis, delamination, pre-rupture and rupture probably represent the natural history of progressive degeneration of the biceps Outline the typical presentation of a patient with achilles tendonitis. Paratenonitis is an inflammation of the outer layers of the tendon and encompasses conditions such as tenosynovitis and tenovaginitis. This pathology generates edema and exudate with inflammatory cells, followed by a fibrinous exudate that causes crepitus and limitation.

Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis - Pathology - Orthobullet

Pain control may include the application of ice, bracing and medications. Exercise rehabilitation is the mainstay of treatment for chronic tendon injuries and must include stretch and strengthening exercises. Generally, strengthening exercises for tendon injuries are eccentric in nature and should be performed relatively pain-free Aim . To evaluate soft tissue masses of the hand with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (USG) and to correlate imaging findings with pathological findings. Material and Methods . Thirty-five patients with soft tissue masses of the hand were evaluated with high resolution USG and contrast enhanced MRI of the hand, prospectively over a period of 2.5 years Tenosynovitis (whose calcifications will present with a history of repetitive use or injury to a specific joint) Cutaneous nodular amyloidosis (which will demonstrate apple-green birefringence under polarizing light after staining with Congo red) Pathology confirmed calcinosis cutis. This article contains a thorough discussion of the. Patient-Specific Functional Scale. PREE and ASES: Patient-rated elbow evaluation (PREE) and American Shoulder and Elbow Society evaluation (ASES) are two similar scales that allow the patient to self-report their pain and disability related to their elbow pathology. The conceptual difference between the two scales is minimal and the correlation.

Biceps tendon pathology 1. SLAP tears , Tendinopathy , Subluxation & Dislocation Extra-capsular : Lesions at the level of the bicipital groove (Tenosynovitis ,Extra-capsular : Lesions at the level of the bicipital groove (Tenosynovitis , ''Hour-glass'' biceps)''Hour-glass'' biceps) Ch 08 lecture_outline_b ebellebell. Tenosynovitis of the thumb is a common diagnosis in hand surgery, historically described in 1895 by Fritz De Quervain [ 1 ]. Usual complain is pain in the first extensor compartment of the wrist, exacerbated by thumb movement and ulnar deviation of the wrist. It is associated with repetitive thumb movements, especially abduction The range of tendon pathology in the wrist is similar to the range of pathology found in tendons elsewhere in the body. Inflammation isolated to the tendon sheath is referred to as tenosynovitis and may be sterile or infectious (Fig. 9-3) Chronic synovitis is diagnosed very rarely. Because of inflammation in the synovial membrane of the joint, there is an accumulation of effusion. Most often, this pathology occurs in the knee, ankle, wrist and carpal joints. The disease develops in one joint, but if it develops into polyarthritis, both joints are affected

Terminology. Tenosynovial giant cell tumor is the term used in the latest (2013) World Health Organization classification 10,11.They have previously been known as giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath (GCTTS), pigmented villonodular tumor of the tendon sheath (PVNTS), extra-articular pigmented villonodular tumor of the tendon sheath or localized or focal nodular synovitis 11 Introduction. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare multisystemic disease that preferentially affects middle-aged women ().Hand involvement is a major feature in patients with SSc, and it is responsible for major disability ().Clinical and radiographic assessments are known to lack sensitivity and specificity for early manifestations of SSc, such as synovitis (3-7) With direct impact injury, the belly of a muscle is typically involved with hematoma and variable fiber disruption ( Fig. 2.12 ).In contrast, stretching of a contracting muscle typically results in injury at the musculotendinous junction and is more common with muscles that span two joints, such as the hamstring muscles ( Fig. 2.13 ) and the medial head of the gastrocnemius ( Fig. 2.14 )

Long head of biceps tendon - Part II : the road to recovery. In the first part of his article, Chris Mallac took a detailed look at the anatomy and biomechanics of the long head of biceps tendon. In part two, he investigates the appropriate diagnostic tests and imaging modalities, and provides clinician with management protocols Definition. In pathology, a granuloma is an organized collection of macrophages.. In medical practice, doctors occasionally use the term granuloma in its more literal meaning: a small nodule. Since a small nodule can represent any tissue from a harmless nevus to a malignant tumor, this use of the term is not very specific.Examples of this use of the term granuloma are the lesions known as. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) represents an acquired, progressive disease of the foot and ankle that is seen commonly in middle-aged patients. It is the most common cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. Treatments involve conservative and surgical options depending on the severity of the disease Adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD), formerly known as posterior tibial tendon (PTT) dysfunction, is one of the most common problems of the foot and ankle. It was first described as tendon failure but has since been revealed as ligamentous failure in addition. AAFD is a spectrum of deformities that ranges from tenosynovitis (stage I) to AAFD (stages II-IV)

Blau syndrome is an inflammatory disorder that primarily affects the skin, joints, and eyes. Signs and symptoms begin in childhood, usually before age 4. A form of skin inflammation called granulomatous dermatitis is typically the earliest sign of Blau syndrome. This skin condition causes a persistent rash that can be scaly or involve hard. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a disease in which the tissue lining the joints and tendons in the body (synovium) grows abnormally. It is characterized by a noncancerous mass or tumor.There are two types of PVNS: the local or nodular form (where the tumor involves the tendons that support the joint, or in one area of the joint) and the diffuse form (where the entire lining of the.

The largest tendon in the body, the Achilles tendon, endures strain and risks rupture from running, jumping, and sudden acceleration or deceleration. Overuse, vascular diseases, neuropathy, and rheumatologic diseases may cause tendon degeneration. The hallmarks of Achilles tendon problems seem to be damaged, weak, and inelastic tissue Cheiralgia paresthetica is a compression neuropathy of the superficial radial nerve. It manifests as sensory disturbances, such as paresthesias, to the dorsal and radial aspect of the wrist and hand. Treatment of this condition is straightforward for most patients with conservative measures directed at removing the offending agent Benign tumors of the hand may be categorized using the different anatomic subunits of the hand. Each subunit has potential for disease processes and abnormal growth. Notably, the musculoskeletal, vascular, osseous, perionychial, cutaneous, and soft tissue elements can develop benign lesions that may manifest as localized masses of the hand